Minimum Delay Routing for Wireless Networks with STDMA

AutorFikret Sivrikaya, Bülent Yener
QuelleSpringer Wireless Networks 
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STDMA emerges as a promising channel access technique for providing Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in multi-hop ad hoc networks such as community mesh and sensor networks. The contention-free channel access combined with spatial reuse of the channel provide significant benefits in the energy/throughput trade-off. On the other hand, the time-multiplexed communication introduces extra delay on the packets when relayed by intermediate nodes. Hence in large wireless sensor networks or mesh networks, where data is routed over several hops before reaching the data sink, STDMA protocols may introduce high end-to-end latency due to the reservation-based access policy. We argue that a suitable routing protocol specifically designed for reservation-based Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols can alleviate their high-latency drawback. Following this argument, we propose first such routing algorithms working on top of a generic STDMA MAC protocol. First, we consider routing with data fusion and present our GreenWave routing idea. We show that our algorithm significantly reduces the end-to-end delay when compared to routing over the shortest-hop paths. Second, we consider routing without data fusion, by taking into account the effect of congestion along the paths on the end-to-end delays. We provide a QIP formulation of the problem, and present a lower bound and a heuristic algorithm to bound the optimal solution. Based on the centralized heuristic algorithm, we propose a distributed, dynamic routing protocol GreenWave routing with Congestion and Flow control (GWCF), which uses a novel congestion and flow control technique utilizing the underlying contention-free protocol. We show by simulations that GWCF routing significantly improves the end-to-end delay while increasing the network throughput when compared to routing over shortest paths.