Mini E powered by Vattenfall

Vehicle 2 Grid - Intelligent charging and discharging of distributed energy storage

 Competence CentersAgent Core TechnologiesNetwork & Mobility
KontaktProf. Dr. Sahin AlbayrakDr.-Ing. Jan Keiser
Partner:  Vattenfall, BMW, TU Ilmenau, TU Chemnitz


The Project

„MINI E Berlin powered by Vattenfall“ is a joint project in cooperation with Vattenfall Europe, the BMW Group, Technical University of Ilmenau and Technical University of Chemnitz. The Project is funded by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. Within the sub-project “Vehicle 2 Grid - Intelligent Charging and Discharging of Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Optimization”, DAI-Labor focuses on sustainable ways for the integration of electrical vehicles and their batteries into the electric grid. For this purpose a decentralized intelligent energy management system and IT-solutions for mobile charging station access technologies that allow provider-independent billing, are developed.


The sub-project „Vehicle 2 Grid“ aims at the development of solutions that allow reserve pooling of energy storage and intelligent energetic recovery. This is accomplished by using distributed energy storage in electric vehicles and feeding energy back into the grid as needed. Intelligent charging and discharging of an arbitrary number of distributed vehicles that can also occur in clusters facilitates purposeful control of the overall grid load. As an example, peak load of energy networks can be reduced in that manner.

In the user-centric charging and discharging approach, the vehicle owner or user and his personal goals, in terms of mobility and cost control, is considered as one fundamental context element. Besides planned usage periods, requirements for non-discriminatory billing of diverse vehicle types by different energy providers are examined. Different battery management systems are covered here and protocols are developed for communication between vehicle and charging infrastructure.

Within this sub-project, a test system is realized to evaluate the overall system behaviour and performance. Data from test results is used as a basis for extrapolations and simulations.


A distributed software agent system constitutes the basis of the intelligent energy management solution. It is based on the JIAC-platform which is developed at DAI-Labor. Distinct software agents are responsible for managing different aspects of the system, such as the driver, the vehicle, batteries, charging stations and components and states of the power grid. The software entities are capable of cooperatively establishing possible load schedules for local sections of the grid, based on goals such as the reduction of CO2 emissions, mobility and grid usage. Total utility of the involved participants is increased through this approach. Charging time slots are computed from data about planned vehicle usage, battery state of charge, charging station availability as well as energy usage or load and user behaviour parameters. A hard- and software prototype was developed at DAI-Labor, to facilitate bidirectional energy transactions with a JIAC-based multi-agent system. This prototype enables testing, evaluation and demonstration of smart charging solutions in a realistic environment.